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如何用硫磺降低土壤PH值 Lowering Soil pH with Sulfur
编辑:寇屹   出处:高缘网   时间:2011-8-30 15:50:39

Blueberries prefer acid soils with a pH of 4.5 to 5.5. With the popularity of blueberries many people are interested in quickly adjusting their soil pH.  Acidifying soil is not an exact science; this handout is just a guide.  The cheapest way to lower the soil pH is to add elemental sulfur to the soil and allow soil bacteria to change the sulfur to sulfuric acid, lowering the soil pH.
蓝莓适合在酸性土壤中生长,要求的土壤PH值在4.5到5.5之间。随着蓝莓受欢迎度的提升,更多人对快速改良土壤PH值更感兴趣。酸化土壤不是一门严谨科学,而这篇文章也仅仅起一个引导作用。降低土壤PH值的最低成本是向土壤里面添加元素硫,通过土壤细菌将硫磺变成硫磺酸,降低土壤PH值。
Table 1. Elemental sulfur1 needed to lower pH to 4.5 (lb/acre)
1       需要使用元素硫1降低PH值到4.5(磅/英亩)
 
Soil type土壤类型
Current pH
现在PH
Sand             沙土
Loam           壤土
Clay                 黏土
5.0
175
530
800
5.5
350
1030
1600
6.0
530
1540
2300
6.5
660
2020
3030
7.0
840
2560
3830
1To substitute ferrous sulfate, multiply by 8.
1要代替硫酸亚铁,乘以8
If soil pH is greater than 5.5, apply adequate elemental sulfur (S) to decrease the soil pH to 4.5 (see Table 1).  Spring application and incorporation work best.  Soil bacteria convert the sulfur to sulfuric acid lowering the soil pH.  It is important to note that this is a biological process (slow) and not a chemical reaction (rapid).  This process occurs when the bacteria are active, when the soil is moist and warm.  The soil temperature needs to be above 55F.  The bacteria are not active in the winter so fall applications of sulfur have no affect on the soil pH next spring.  In addition, the soil must not be flooded (anaerobic) or the sulfur is converted to hydrogen sulfide (rotten egg smell) by anaerobic bacteria.  Hydrogen Sulfide will kill the roots of plants including blueberries.  Irrigate if the field becomes dry to moisten the soil but do not over irrigate the soil.  This causes flooding and anaerobic conditions.  Most Michigan irrigation water is high in alkalinity (dissolved lime) and will gradually raise the soil pH.
如果土壤PH值大于5.5,通过添加足量的元素硫将土壤PH值降低到4.5(查看表 1)。春季混合使用效果绝佳。也可通过土壤细菌将硫磺变成硫磺酸,降低土壤PH值。重要提示:这只是一个生物过程(慢)而不是一个化学反应(快),而且这一过程只有在细菌活跃、土壤温暖潮湿且土壤温度达到55华氏度以上的状态下才能生效。由于细菌在冬季处于不活跃状态,所以在秋天添加硫磺对来年春天的土壤PH值毫无意义。此外,不能水浸土壤(细菌等能在无空气状态下生长),否则厌氧细菌会将硫磺转化成氢化硫(臭鸡蛋味)。氢化硫会杀死包括蓝莓在内的植物根系。如果需要灌溉干旱土壤,千万不能超量灌溉,这会导致过多水浸和产生厌氧菌。密歇根州大部分喷灌水碱性过高(溶化后的石灰),这将逐渐提升土壤PH值。
The amount of sulfur required is very dependent on soil texture.  This is because clay and organic matter act as a buffer, absorbing and releasing mineral ions.  Relatively little sulfur is needed on sands, whereas soils high in clay or organic matter require much more.  It is important to apply and incorporate sulfur at least a year before planting to allow the sulfur time to react and lower the soil pH before planting. 
硫磺的需求量非常依赖于土壤质地,这是因为黏土和有机物起到一个缓冲作用,吸收和释放矿物离子。相对而言,沙土需要少量的硫磺,而黏性或有机物高的土壤需要的硫磺更多。重要的是在种植至少一年前添加硫磺,这样在种植前硫磺就有时间起反应来降低土壤PH值。
If large changes in pH are needed, do not assume that the change can be completed in a short time.  Sulfur cannot be easily incorporated to change the soil pH quickly after plants are present.  Surface-applied sulfur will provide the same pH reduction as incorporated material, but takes a longer time, Check soil pH again just before planting and apply additional sulfur if needed.  Do not apply more than 400 lb sulfur per acre to established plantings at one time.  When large amounts are needed, spread the application out over several years. 
如果土壤PH值需要大幅度改良的话,短时间内很难完成改良。一旦完成种植后,硫磺就很难快速溶入土壤改变土壤PH值。表面硫磺和混合材料一样可以降低PH值,但耗时较长。在种植前,再次检查土壤PH值,如果有需要的话,可以添加额外的硫磺。每次每英亩种植地不能添加多于400磅的硫磺。当需要多量时,可以经过几年时间完成实际应用。
Ferrous sulfate also decreases soil pH, but it is more costly to use than sulfur.  Eight times as much ferrous sulfate is needed than elemental sulfur since we are not creating an acid in the soil but adding a salt that disassociates into iron and sulfuric acid.  The iron binds to the clay or precipitates out of the soil solution leaving the sulfuric acid behind.  Aluminum sulfate also acidifies soils, but it too is expensive and there are reports that it can be toxic to blueberries if high rates are applied. Many people want to change the soil pH right now!  To do this you need to add acid to the soil.  Some growers have even irrigated with dilute sulfuric acid to lower the soil pH. This can work well for trickle irrigation but not for overhead sprinkler systems. Very acidic water gradually corrodes metal pipes and fittings, and can cause injury if applied directly on plants.
硫酸亚铁也能降低土壤PH值,但是比硫磺的成本大。而且硫酸亚铁的需求量是元素硫的八倍,因为我们不仅要酸性土壤而且也会添加一种盐来分离铁和硫酸。铁不与黏土结合,就从土壤溶液中沉淀下来,独留硫酸。硫酸铝也能酸化土壤,但成本耗资大。经论证,如果使用比率过高,同样对蓝莓有百害而无一利。很多人想现在马上就能改良土壤PH值,为了达成这一目标,需要向土壤中添加酸。甚至一些种植家通过喷灌稀释硫酸来降低土壤PH值。这种方式适合于滴灌但不适合顶喷式喷头系统。酸性大的水质也会逐渐腐蚀金属管件和配件,如果直接作用于植物,将会损害植物。
Many potential growers have a soil sample from their potential site that shows a high pH and need to know what type of soil they have to determine the amount of sulfur to apply to the site.  Soil samples give a value for the CEC or Cation Exchange Capacity.  The CEC can be use to estimate soil texture.  The table below gives typical CEC ranges for different soil texture types.
许多潜在种植家从现场抽出的土壤样本中均显示PH值较高,这就需要我们知道土壤类型来决定用于田地的硫磺量。根据土壤样本评估出的阳离子交换能力来进一步评估土壤质地。下面表格列出了不同土壤质地类型中典型阳离子交换能力的范围。
TheCEC or Cation Exchange Capacity can be use to estimate soil texture
通过阳离子交换能力判断土壤质地       
General range of CEC for different soil texture groups:
不同土壤质地群体中阳离子交换能力的普通范围
Soil Type土壤类型
CEC阳离子交换能力
Loamy sand:肥沃沙土:
  < 5 meq毫克当量/100 g
Sandy loam:沙质壤土:
6-8 meq毫克当量/100 g
Loam:壤土:
 9-12 meq毫克当量/100 g
Clay loam:黏性壤土:
12-17 meg毫克当量/100 g
For example if your soil sample had a soil pH of 6.5 and a CEC of 12-meq/100 g, this suggests a loam soil. Table 1 in indicates over 2000 lb of S per acre would be needed to reduce the soil pH, 2 pH points, to 4.5.  This is a large shift in pH and unlikely to be accomplished quickly.
例如:如果你的土壤样本显示土壤PH值是6.5,阳离子交换能力是12毫克当量/100克,这可能是壤土。表1显示每英亩大于2000磅硫磺,会将土壤PH值降低2个点到4.5。这种PH值的幅度改变比较大,不可能快速完成改变。
Ideally, 2,000#/A of sulfur would be applied early in the season the year before planting and the pH would be checked again in the Fall and the following Spring.  If the soil pH was below 5.5 then blueberries could be planted in the Spring.  If the soil pH was high in the Fall and still high in the spring more sulfur should be added before the fall planting of blueberries.
理想的话,在种植前一年种植季早期每英亩使用2000磅硫磺,然后在秋天和来年春天再核查一遍PH值。如果土壤PH值达到5.5以下,春季即可种植蓝莓。如果土壤PH值在秋天和来年春天仍旧很高,那么在秋天种植蓝莓前应添加额外的硫磺。
Since more than 400 lb S should not be applied at one time to established plants, correcting the pH here will require 5 years of 400 lb applications in the spring if the pH was not corrected before planting.  I doubt the poor growth of the planting while the pH is being corrected would justify the quick planting before the pH was in the 4.5 to 5.5 range.
大于400磅的硫磺不可能一次性注入种植地,如果在种植前PH值仍不达标,需要5年时间在每年春天共完成400磅的硫磺注入来改良土壤PH值。在PH值改良期间,植物生长缓慢,但是一旦土壤PH值达到4.5到5.5范围之内的话,生长速度将会明显增快。

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