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Integrated Pest Management for Turf
编辑:郭海滨   出处:南京农业大学杂草研究室   时间:2011-1-13 14:57:05

IPM, or Integrated Pest Management, is a program which entails using common sense and good cultural practices in the maintenance of turf. The elements of a successful IPM approach to turf management include:

• Identification of the source of any "problems"

• Knowledge of the life cycle of the problematic insect, disease or weed

• Determination of the tolerance level for a pest ( i.e., how many is too many? How much damage to the turf is acceptable?)

• Regular scouting of the property to determine the pest population level and whether or not the tolerance level is being exceeded

• Determination of whether or not pest control is necessary

• Identification and implementation of cultural techniques to manage the pest or problem to the extent necessary

• Selection of pesticides which will minimize disruption to the environment and potential exposures to applicators and others

• Communication of findings, intentions, actions to all parties involved

• Evaluation of action; did the course of action followed alleviate the problem?

To identify the source of any "problems," the turf manager must be familiar with the turf use, customer or client expectations and local conditions. Many poor turf conditions are a result of agronomic imbalances or improper cultural practices rather than pest activity. The turf manager must be familiar with the specific site conditions. For example: soil condition (is it compacted? does it drain well?); irrigation (does the system provide even coverage? has there been adequate rain or irrigation? Is too much water being applied?); mowing patterns and height; turf type (is the species or cultivar adapted to the site and to the use of the turf?); and use of the turf (is it an ornamental front lawn? A heavily used municipal athletic field?).

If the turf is infested with an insect, disease or weed, the turf manager must be knowledgeable about the life cycle of the pest. When is damage most likely to occur? What is the most susceptible stage for control? How much pest activity can be tolerated before action must be taken? It is critical to set up a program in which a scout inspects the turf regularly, watching for pest outbreaks or agronomic problems.

Once it becomes apparent that a pest outbreak is likely to occur or that a tolerance level for a pest is going to be exceeded, the turf manager must look for control options. Sometimes cultural manipulations and controls are sufficient. Raising the mowing height, for example, even for a few weeks, can sometimes enable a turf to tolerate diseases or prevent weed infestations. Fertility adjustments can sometimes stave off damage from certain kinds of diseases.

There are several biological control options available now for controlling insects. Some of these alternatives (bacteria, nematodes and growth regulators, for example) are applied through traditional sprayers and handled like traditional insecticides although they behave differently. A turf manager must know what to expect from these biological control options and how to maximize their effectiveness in an IPM program.

A traditional pesticide might occasionally be necessary to control a pest whose presence has developed beyond the tolerance level. If this happens, a turf manager must be familiar with the pesticide options and, if at all possible, use a material which will not interfere with various environmental concerns. If the facility is near surface water (lakes, ponds or streams), for example, or in sandy soil in an area with a shallow water table, then mobile or more persistent pesticides would be more "risky" to use than less mobile or less persistent materials. Always read and follow the Environmental Concerns and all other parts of the label.

Communication is a crucial, and often overlooked, aspect of an IPM program. It is very important to keep your clientele informed of your intentions. Tell them what you found while you were out scouting and explain what you think the options are and what implications of various actions will be. Most people appreciate being kept informed and will be impressed with your professionalism and commitment to the environment.

IPM, Integrated Pest Management, or Intelligent Plant Management, can be considered a form of stress management. Turf can handle one or two stresses at a time, but it may not be able to handle three or four stresses at once. Putting together a formal IPM program is a commitment but is also, to a large degree, common sense. Most successful turf managers are already practicing several key parts of IPM, but a little more attention to detail (scouting, identifying options, keeping records and evaluating results) will result in a successful turf IPM program.

 


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